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Valve Selection Handbook

Valve Selection Handbook

Table of Contents:

Preface
1 Introduction

Fundamentals
Manual Valves
Check Valves
Pressure Relief Valves
Rupture Discs
Units of Measurements
Identification of Valve Size and Pressure Class
Standards
2 Fundamentals
Fluid Tightness of Valves

Valve Seals
Leakage Criterion
Proving Fluid Tightness
Sealing Mechanism
Sealability Against Liquids
Sealability Against Gases
Mechanism for Closing Leakage Passages
Valve Seatings
Metal Seatings
Sealing with Sealants
Soft Seatings
Gaskets
Flat Metallic Gaskets
Compressed Asbestos Fiber
Gaskets
Gaskets of Exfoliated Graphite
Spiral Wound Gaskets
Gasket Blowout
Valve Stem Seals
Compression Packings
Lip-Type Packings
Squeeze-Type Packings
Thrust Packings
Diaphragm Valve Stem Seals
Flow Through Valves
Resistance Coefficient
Flow Coefficient Cv,
Flow Coefficient Kv
Flow Coefficient Av
Interrelationships between Resistance and Flow Coefficients
Relationship between Resistance Coefficient and Valve Opening Position
Cavitation of Valves
Waterhammer from Valve Operation
Attenuation of Valve Noise
3 Manual Valves
Functions of Manual Valves
Grouping of Valves by Method of Flow Regulation
Selection of Valves

Valves for Stopping and Starting Flow
Valves for Control of Flow Rate
Valves for Diverting Flow
Valves for Fluids with Solids in Suspension
Valve End Connections,
Standards Pertaining to Valve Ends
Valve Ratings
Valve Selection Chart
Globe Valves
Valve Body Patterns
Valve Seatings
Connection of Disc to Stem
Inside and Outside Stem Screw
Bonnet Joints
Stuffing Boxes and Back Seating
Direction of Flow Through Globe Valves
Standards Pertaining to Globe Valves
Applications
Piston Valves
Construction
Standards Pertaining to Piston Valves
Applications
Parallel Gate Valves
Conventional Parallel Gate Valves
Conduit Gate Valves,
Valve Bypass
Pressure-Equalizing Connection
Standards Pertaining to Parallel Gate Valves
Applications
Wedge Gate Valves
Variations of Wedge Design
Connection of Wedge to Stem
Wedge Guide Design
Valve Bypass
Pressure-Equalizing Connection
Case Study of Wedge
Gate Valve Failure
Standards Pertaining to Wedge Gate Valves
Applications
Plug Valves
Cylindrical Plug Valves
Taper Plug Valves
Antistatic Device
Plug Valves for Fire Exposure
Multiport Configuration
Face-to-Face Dimensions and Valve Patterns
Standards Pertaining to Plug Valves
Applications
Ball Valves
Seat Materials for Ball Valves
Seating Designs
Pressure-Equalizing Connection
Antistatic Device
Ball Valves for Fire Exposure
Multiport Configuration,
Ball Valves for Cryogenic Service
Variations of Body Construction
Face-to-Face Dimensions
Standards Pertaining to Ball Valves
Applications
Butterfly Valves
Seating Designs
Butterfly Valves for Fire Exposure
Body Configurations
Torque Characteristic of Butterfly Valves
Standards Pertaining to Butterfly Valves
Applications
Pinch Valves
Open and Enclosed Pinch Valves
Flow Control with Mechanically Pinched Valves
Flow Control with Fluid-Pressure Operated Pinch Valves
Valve Body
Limitations
Standards Pertaining to Pinch Valves
Applications
Diaphragm Valves
Weir-Type Diaphragm Valves
Straight-Through Diaphragm Valves
Construction Materials
Valve Pressure/Temperature Relationships
Valve Flow Characteristics
Operational Limitations
Standards Pertaining to Diaphragm Valves
Applications
Stainless Steel Valves
Corrosion-Resistant Alloys
Crevice Corrosion
Galling of Valve Parts
Light-Weight Valve
Constructions
Standards Pertaining to Stainless
Steel Valves
4 Check Valves
Function of Check Valves

Grouping of Check Valves
Operation of Check Valves,
Assessment of Check Valves for Fast Closing
Application of Mathematics to the Operation of Check Valves
Design of Check Valves
Lift Check Valves
Swing Check Valves
Tilting-Disc Check Valves
Diaphragm Check Valves
Dashpots
Selection of Check Valves
Check Valves for Incompressible Fluids
Check Valves for Compressible Fluids
Standards Pertaining to Check Valves
5 Pressure Relief Valves
Principal Types of Pressure Relief Valves
Terminology

Pressure Relief Valves
Dimensional Characteristics
System Characteristics
Device Characteristics
Direct-Loaded Pressure Relief Valves
Review
Safety Valves
Safety Relief Valves
Liquid Relief Valves
Vacuum Relief Valves
Direct-Loaded Pressure Relief Valves with Auxiliary Actuator
Oscillation Dampers
Certification of Valve Performance
Force/Lift Diagrams as an Aid for Predicting the Operational Behavior of Spring-Loaded Pressure Relief Valves
Secondary Back Pressure from Flow-Through Valve Body
Verification of Operating Data of Spring-Loaded Pressure Relief Valves Prior to and after Installation
Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valves
Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valves with Direct-Acting Pilot
Stable Operation of Valves with On/Off Pilots
Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valves with Indirect-Acting Pilot
6 Rupture Discs
Terminology
Application of Rupture Discs
Limitations of Rupture Discs in Liquid Systems.
Construction Materials of Rupture Discs
Temperature and Burst Pressure Relationships
Heat Shields
Rupture Disc Application Parameters
Metal Rupture Discs
Tension-Loaded Types
Compression-Loaded Types
Graphite Rupture Discs
Rupture Disc Holders
Clean-Sweep Assembly
Quick-Change Housings
Accessories
Double Disc Assemblies
Selecting Rupture Discs
Rupture Disc Device in Combination with Pressure Relief Valve
Explosion Vent Panels
Reordering Rupture Discs
User’s Responsibility
7 Sizing Pressure Relief Devices
Sizing of Pressure Relief Valves Gas, Vapor, Steam

Sizing Equations for Gas and Vapor other than Steam
Sizing Equations for Dry Saturated Steam
Sizing Equations for Liquids Flow
Influence of Inlet Pressure Loss on Valve Discharge Capacity
Sizing of Inlet Piping to Pressure Relief Valves
Sizing of Discharge Piping of Pressure Relief Valves

Sizing of Rupture Discs
Rupture Disc Sizing for Nonviolent Pressure Excursions
Sizing Equations for Gas or Vapor
Rupture Disc Sizing for Violent Pressure Excursions in Low-Strength Containers
8 Actuators
Introduction
Types of Actuators
Valve Operating Forces

Linear Valves
Part-turn Valves-90°
Conclusion
Pneumatic Actuators
Pneumatic Power Supplies
Types of Pneumatic Actuators
Advantages- Disadvantages- Summary
Electric Actuators
Electrical Supply
Environmental Protection
Gearing
Manual Operation
Advantages- Disadvantages- Summary
Hydraulic Actuators
Advantages- Disadvantages- Summary
Sizing Actuators for Control Valves
Actuator Specification Sheet
Spare Parts and Maintaining Actuated Valves

Commissioning Spares
Two Years' Spares
Long Term Spares
Maintenance
9 Double Block and Bleed Ball Valves
An Introduction to Double Block and Bleed Ball Valves
Double Block and Bleed Isolation Philosophy
Instrument Double Block and Bleed Ball Valves
In-line Double Block and Bleed Ball Valves
10 Mechanical Locking Devices for Valves
Introduction
Car Sealed Open and Car Sealed Closed
Locked Open and Locked Closed
Mechanical Interlocking
The Mechanical Interlocking of Pressure Safety Valves

Procedure to Change Out PRV
The Mechanical Interlocking of Pipeline Launchers and Receivers
Normal Operating Conditions
Conclusion
APPENDIX A Abbreviation of Organizations and Standards Related to the international Valve Industry
APPENDIX B Properties of Fluids
APPENDIX C Standards Pertaining to Valves
APPENDIX D International System of Units (S.I.)
APPENDIX E Valve Glossary
References
Index

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